Learning how to separate benign confounders from prostate cancer is important because the imaging characteristics of these confounders are poorly understood. Furthermore, the typical representations of the MRI parameters might not be enough to allow discrimination. The diagnostic uncertainty this causes leads to a lower diagnostic accuracy. In this paper a new cascaded classifier is introduced to separate prostate cancer and benign confounders on MRI in conjunction with specific computer-extracted features to distinguish each of the benign classes (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), inflammation, atrophy or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study we tried to (1) calculate different mathematical representations of the MRI parameters which more clearly express subtle differences between different classes, (2) learn which of the MRI image features will allow to distinguish specific benign confounders from prostate cancer, and (2) find the combination of computer-extracted MRI features to best discriminate cancer from the confounding classes using a cascaded classifier. One of the most important requirements for identifying MRI signatures for adenocarcinoma, BPH, atrophy, inflammation, and PIN is accurate mapping of the location and spatial extent of the confounder and cancer categories from ex vivo histopathology to MRI. Towards this end we employed an annotated prostatectomy data set of 31 patients, all of whom underwent a multi-parametric 3 Tesla MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. The prostatectomy slides were carefully co-registered to the corresponding MRI slices using an elastic registration technique. We extracted texture features from the T2-weighted imaging, pharmacokinetic features from the dynamic contrast enhanced imaging and diffusion features from the diffusion-weighted imaging for each of the confounder classes and prostate cancer. These features were selected because they form the mainstay of clinical diagnosis. Relevant features for each of the classes were selected using maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection, allowing us to perform classifier independent feature selection. The selected features were then incorporated in a cascading classifier, which can focus on easier sub-tasks at each stage, leaving the more difficult classification tasks for later stages. Results show that distinct features are relevant for each of the benign classes, for example the fraction of extra-vascular, extra-cellular space in a voxel is a clear discriminator for inflammation. Furthermore, the cascaded classifier outperforms both multi-class and one-shot classifiers in overall accuracy for discriminating confounders from cancer: 0.76 versus 0.71 and 0.62.
Distinguishing prostate cancer from benign confounders via a cascaded classifier on multi-parametric MRI
G. Litjens, R. Elliott, N. Shih, M. Feldman, J. Barentsz, C. - van de Hulsbergen Kaa, I. Kovacs, H. Huisman and A. Madabhushi
Medical Imaging 2014;9035:903512.